Publications

Recent highlights

A full list of publications and patents is available below and at Google Scholar.

Understanding the Impact of Edge Cases from Occluded Pedestrians for ML Systems

Machine learning (ML)-enabled approaches are considered a substantial support technique of detection and classification of obstacles of traffic participants in self-driving vehicles. Major breakthroughs have been demonstrated the past few years, even covering complete end-to-end data processing chain from sensory inputs through perception and planning to vehicle control of acceleration, breaking and steering. YOLO (you-only-look-once) is a state-of-the-art perception neural network (NN) architecture providing object detection and classification through bounding box estimations on camera images. As the NN is trained on well annotated images, in this paper we study the variations of confidence levels from the NN when tested on hand-crafted occlusion added to a test set. We compare regular pedestrian detection to upper and lower body detection. Our findings show that the two NN using only partial information perform similarly well like the NN for the full body when the full body NN’s performance is 0.75 or better. Furthermore and as expected, the network, which is only trained on the lower half body is least prone to disturbances from occlusions of the upper half and vice versa.

Henriksson, Jens and Berger, Christian and Ursig, Stig

Proceedings of the 47th EUROMICRO Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications (SEAA), September, 2021

Performance Analysis of Out-of-Distribution Detection on Trained Neural Networks

Context Deep Neural Networks (DNN) have shown great promise in various domains, for example to support pattern recognition in medical imagery. However, DNNs need to be tested for robustness before being deployed in safety critical applications. One common challenge occurs when the model is exposed to data samples outside of the training data domain, which can yield to outputs with high confidence despite no prior knowledge of the given input. Objective The aim of this paper is to investigate how the performance of detecting out-of-distribution (OOD) samples changes for outlier detection methods (e.g., supervisors) when DNNs become better on training samples. Method Supervisors are components aiming at detecting out-of-distribution samples for a DNN. The experimental setup in this work compares the performance of supervisors using metrics and datasets that reflect the most common setups in related works. Four different DNNs with three different supervisors are compared during different stages of training, to detect at what point during training the performance of the supervisors begins to deteriorate. Results Found that the outlier detection performance of the supervisors increased as the accuracy of the underlying DNN improved. However, all supervisors showed a large variation in performance, even for variations of network parameters that marginally changed the model accuracy. The results showed that understanding the relationship between training results and supervisor performance is crucial to improve a model’s robustness. Conclusion Analyzing DNNs for robustness is a challenging task. Results showed that variations in model parameters that have small variations on model predictions can have a large impact on the out-of-distribution detection performance. This kind of behavior needs to be addressed when DNNs are part of a safety critical application and hence, the necessary safety argumentation for such systems need be structured accordingly.

Henriksson, Jens and Berger, Christian and Borg, Markus and Tornberg, Lars and Sathyamoorthy, Sankar Raman and Englund, Cristofer

Journal of Information and Software Technology (IST), February, 2021

Continuous Experimentation for Automotive Software on the Example of a Heavy Commercial Vehicle in Daily Operation

As the automotive industry focuses its attention more and more towards the software functionality of vehicles, techniques to deliver new software value at a fast pace are needed. Continuous Experimentation, a practice coming from the web-based systems world, is one of such techniques. It enables researchers and developers to use real-world data to verify their hypothesis and steer the software evolution based on performances and user preferences, reducing the reliance on simulations and guesswork. Several challenges prevent the verbatim adoption of this practice on automotive cyber-physical systems, e.g., safety concerns and limitations from computational resources; nonetheless, the automotive field is starting to take interest in this technique. This work aims at demonstrating and evaluating a prototypical Continuous Experimentation infrastructure, implemented on a distributed computational system housed in a commercial truck tractor that is used in daily operations by a logistic company on public roads. The system comprises computing units and sensors, and software deployment and data retrieval are only possible remotely via a mobile data connection due to the commercial interests of the logistics company. This study shows that the proposed experimentation process resulted in the development team being able to base software development choices on the real-world data collected during the experimental procedure. Additionally, a set of previously identified design criteria to enable Continuous Experimentation on automotive systems was discussed and their validity confirmed in the light of the presented work.

Giaimo, Federico and Berger, Christian

Proceedings of the European Conference on Software Architecture (ECSA), September, 2020

Test Your Self-Driving Algorithm: An Overview of Publicly Available Driving Datasets and Virtual Testing Environments

Many companies aim for delivering systems for autonomous driving reaching out for SAE Level 5. As these systems run much more complex software than typical premium cars of today, a thorough testing strategy is needed. Early prototyping of such systems can be supported using recorded data from onboard and surrounding sensors as long as open-loop testing is applicable; later, though, closed-loop testing is necessary-either by testing on the real vehicle or by using a virtual testing environment. This paper is a substantial extension of our work presented at the 2017 IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC) that was surveying the area of publicly available driving datasets. Our previous results are extended by additional datasets and complemented with a summary of publicly available virtual testing environments to support closed-loop testing. As such, a steadily growing number of 37 datasets for open-loop testing and 22 virtual testing environments for closed-loop testing have been surveyed in detailed. Thus, conducting research toward autonomous driving is significantly supported from complementary community efforts: A growing number of publicly accessible datasets allow for experiments with perception approaches or training and testing machine-learning-based algorithms, while virtual testing environments enable end-to-end simulations.

Kang, Yue and Yin, Hang and Berger, Christian

IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Vehicles, March, 2019

Patents

Markus Erlacher, Christian Berger, Torsten Krüger:
“Motor vehicle with driving safety feature”
US9527407B2 (2011)

Markus Erlacher, Michael Botsch, Christian Berger, Torsten Krüger:
“Method for controlling a reversible belt tensioner of a safety belt in a motor vehicle”
US9150194B2 (2011)

 

Full List of Publications

[102] Zhang, Chi and Berger, Christian:
“Pedestrian Behavior Prediction Using Deep Learning Methods for Urban Scenarios: A Review”
In: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, December, 2022 (in submission)


[101] Berger, Christian:
“Digital Sovereignty and Software Engineering for the IoT-laden, AI/ML-driven Era”
In: IEEE International Symposium on Software Services Engineering, May, 2022


[100] Zhang, Chi and Berger, Christian:
“Learning the Vehicle-Pedestrian Interaction for Pedestrian Trajectory Prediction”
In: Proceedings of the 13th International ACM Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications 2021, April, 2022


[99] Svensson, Lars and Bujarbaruah, Monimoy and Karsolia, Arpit and Berger, Christian and Törngren, Martin:
“Traction Adaptive Motion Planning at the Limits of Handling”
In: IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, December, 2021


[98] Berger, Christian:
“A Structured Analysis of the Video Degradation Effects on the Performance of a Machine Learning-enabled Pedestrian Detector”
In: Proceedings of the 47th EUROMICRO Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications (SEAA), September, 2021


[97] Henriksson, Jens and Berger, Christian and Ursig, Stig:
“Understanding the Impact of Edge Cases from Occluded Pedestrians for ML Systems”
In: Proceedings of the 47th EUROMICRO Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications (SEAA), September, 2021


[96] Zhang, Chi and Berger, Christian and Dozza, Marco:
“Social-IWSTCNN: A Social Interaction-Weighted Spatio-Temporal Convolutional Neural Network for Pedestrian Trajectory Prediction in Urban Traffic Scenarios”
In: Proceedings of the 32nd IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IVS), July, 2021


[95] Berger, Christian and Karsolia, Arpit and Giaimo, Federico and Benderius, Ola:
“Over 60,000 km in a Year: Remotely Collecting Large-Volume High-Quality Data from a Logistics Truck in Daily Operation (presentation)”
In: Proceedings of the Annual Conference on System of Systems Engineering (SoSE), June, 2021


[94] Henriksson, Jens and Berger, Christian and Borg, Markus and Tornberg, Lars and Sathyamoorthy, Sankar Raman and Englund, Cristofer:
“Performance Analysis of Out-of-Distribution Detection on Trained Neural Networks”
In: Journal of Information and Software Technology (IST), February, 2021


[93] Giaimo, Federico and Andrade, Hugo, and Berger, Christian:
“Continuous experimentation and the cyber-physical systems challenge: An overview of the literature and the industrial perspective”
In: Journal of Systems and Software (JSS), December, 2020


[92] Sica de Andrade, Hugo and Berger, Christian and Crnknovic, Ivica and Bosch, Jan:
“Principles for Re-architecting Software for Heterogeneous Platforms”
In: Proceedings of the 27th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference (APSEC), December, 2020


[91] Zavala, Edith and Franch, Xavier and Marco, Jordi and Berger, Christian:
“Adaptive monitoring for autonomous vehicles using the HAFLoop architecture”
In: Journal of Enterprise Information Systems (EIS), November, 2020


[90] Giaimo, Federico and Berger, Christian:
“Continuous Experimentation for Automotive Software on the Example of a Heavy Commercial Vehicle in Daily Operation”
In: Proceedings of the European Conference on Software Architecture (ECSA), September, 2020


[89] Zavala, Edith and Franch, Xavier and Marco, Jordi and Berger, Christian:
“HAFLoop: An architecture for supporting Highly Adaptive Feedback Loops in self-adaptive systems”
In: Journal of Future Generation Computer Systems (FGCS), April, 2020


[88] Nguyen, Björnborg and Berger, Christian and Benderius, Ola:
“Systematic benchmarking for reproducibility of computer vision algorithms for real-time systems: The example of optic flow estimation”
In: Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), November, 2019


[87] Mamun, Md Abdullah Al and Martini, Antonio and Staron, Miroslaw and Berger, Christian and Hansson, Jörgen:
“Evolution of Technical Debt: An Exploratory Study”
In: Proceedings of the 29th International Workshop on Software Measurement and 15th International Conference on Software Process and Product Measurement (IWSM Mensura), October, 2019


[86] Henriksson, Jens and Berger, Christian and Borg, Markus and Tornberg, Lars and Sathyamoorthy, Sankar Raman and Englund, Cristofer:
“Performance Analysis of Out-of-Distribution Detection on Various Trained Neural Networks”
In: Proceedings of the 45th EUROMICRO Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications (SEAA), September, 2019


[85] Henriksson, Jens and Berger, Christian and Borg, Markus and Tornberg, Lars and Sathyamoorthy, Sankar Raman and Englund, Cristofer and Ursig, Stig:
“Towards Structured Evaluation of Deep Neural Network Supervisors”
In: Proceedings of the 1st IEEE International Conference on Artificial Intelligence Testing (AITest), September, 2019


[84] Giaimo, Federico and Sica de Andrade, Hugo and Berger, Christian:
“The Automotive Take on Continuous Experimentation: A Multiple Case Study”
In: Proceedings of the 45th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications (SEAA), August, 2019


[83] Mamun, Md Abdullah and Berger, Christian and Hansson, Jörgen:
“Effects of measurements on correlations of software code metrics”
In: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering (EMSE), August, 2019


[82] Kang, Yue and Yin, Hang and Berger, Christian:
“Test Your Self-Driving Algorithm: An Overview of Publicly Available Driving Datasets and Virtual Testing Environments”
In: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Vehicles, March, 2019


[81] Lotz, Jannik and Vogelsang, Andreas and Berger, Christian and Benderius, Ola:
“Microservice Architectures for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems: A Case-Study”
In: Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Automotive Software Architectures (WASA), March, 2019


[80] Berger, Christian and Penzenstadler, Birgit and Drögehorn, Olaf:
“On Using Blockchains for Safety-Critical Systems”
In: Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Software Engineering for Smart Cyber-Physical Systems (SEsCPS), May, 2018


[79] Benderius, Ola and Berger, Christian and Malmsten Lundgren, Victor:
“The Best Rated Human-Machine Interface Design for Autonomous Vehicles in the 2016 Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge”
In: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, April, 2018


[78] Mamun, Md Abdullah Al and Berger, Christian and Hansson, Jörgen:
“Correlations of software code metrics: an empirical study”
In: Proceedings of the 27th International Workshop on Software Measurement and 12th International Conference on Software Process and Product Measurement (IWSM Mensura), October, 2017


[77] Yin, Hang and Berger, Christian:
“When to Use What Data Set for Your Self-Driving Car Algorithm: An Overview of Publicly Available Driving Datasets”
In: Proceedings of the 20th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), October, 2017


[76] Giaimo, Federico and Berger, Christian and Kirchner, Crispin:
“Considerations about Continuous Experimentation for Resource-Constrained Platforms in Self-Driving Vehicles”
In: Proceedings of the European Conference on Software Architecture (ECSA), September, 2017


[75] Schroeder, Jan and Berger, Christian and Knauss, Alessia and Preenja, Harri and Ali, Mohammad and Staron, Miroslaw and Herpel, Thomas:
“Predicting and Evaluating Software Model Growth in the Automotive Industry”
In: Proceedings of the 33rd International Conference on Software Maintenance and Evolution (ICSME), September, 2017


[74] Yin, Hang and Berger, Christian:
“Mastering Data Complexity for Autonomous Driving with Adaptive Point Clouds for Urban Environments”
In: Proceedings of the 28th IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IVS), June, 2017


[73] Eklund, Ulrik and Berger, Christian:
“Scaling Agile Development in Mechatronic Organizations – A Comparative Case Study”
In: Proceedings of the 39th IEEE Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE), May, 2017


[72] Knauss, Alessia and Schroeder, Jan and Berger, Christian and Eriksson, Henrik:
“Paving the Roadway for Safety of Automated Vehicles: An Empirical Study on Testing Challenges”
In: Proceedings of the 28th IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IVS), May, 2017


[71] Knauss, Alessia and Schroeder, Jan and Berger, Christian and Eriksson, Henrik:
“Software-Related Challenges of Testing Automated Vehicles”
In: Proceedings of the 39th IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE), May, 2017


[70] Berger, Christian and Nguyen, Björnborg and Benderius, Ola:
“Containerized Development and Microservices for Self-Driving Vehicles: Experiences & Best Practices”
In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Automotive Software Architectures (WASA), April, 2017


[69] Giaimo, Federico and Berger, Christian:
“Design Criteria to Architect Continuous Experimentation for Self-Driving Vehicles”
In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Software Architecture (ICSA), April, 2017


[68] Masek, Philip and Thulin, Magnus and Andrade, Hugo and Berger, Christian and Benderius, Ola:
“Systematic Evaluation of Sandboxed Software Deployment for Real-time Software on the Example of a Self-Driving Heavy Vehicle”
In: Proceedings of the 19th IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Conference (ITSC), November, 2016


[67] Rana, Rakesh and Staron, Miroslaw and Berger, Christian and Hansson, Jörgen and Nilsson, Martin and Meding, Wilhelm:
“Analyzing defect inflow distribution and applying Bayesian inference method for software defect prediction in large software projects”
In: Journal of Systems and Software (JSS), July, 2016


[66] Schroeder, Jan and Berger, Christian and Staron, Miroslaw and Herpel, Thomas and Knauss, Alessia:
“Unveiling anomalies and their impact on software quality in model-based automotive software revisions with software metrics and domain experts”
In: Proceedings of the 25th International Symposium on Software Testing and Analysis (ISSTA), July, 2016


[65] Berger, Christian:
“An Open Continuous Deployment Infrastructure for a Self-driving Vehicle Ecosystem”
In: Proceedings of the 2016 IFIP International Conference on Open Source Systems (OSS), May, 2016


[64] Giaimo, Federico and Yin, Hang and Berger, Christian and Crnkovic, Ivica:
“Continuous Experimentation on Cyber-Physical Systems: Challenges and Opportunities”
In: Proceedings of the Scientific Workshop Proceedings of XP2016, May, 2016


[63] Knauss, Alessia and Berger, Christian and Eriksson, Henrik:
“Towards state-of-the-art and future trends in testing of active safety systems”
In: Proceedings of International Workshop on Software Engineering for Smart Cyber-Physical Systems (SEsCPS), May, 2016


[62] Gómez, Gaspar Luis Gil and Vestlund, Johannes and Bakker, Egbert and Berger, Christian and Nybacka, Mikael and Drugge, Lars:
“Improving Subjective Assessment of Vehicle Dynamics Evaluations by means of Computer-Tablets as Digital Aid”
In: SAE Technical Paper, April, 2016


[61] Yin, Hang and Giaimo, Federico and Andrade, Hugo and Berger, Christian and Crnkovic, Ivica:
“Adaptive Message Restructuring Using Model-Driven Engineering”
In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Information Technology: New Generations (ITNG), April, 2016


[60] Bures, Tomas and Weyns, Danny and Berger, Christian and Biffl, Stefan and Daun, Marian and Gabor, Thomas and Garlan, Barnard David and Gerostathopoulos, Ilias and Julien, Christine and Krikava, Filip and Mordinyi, Richard and Pronios, Nikos B.:
“Software Engineering for Smart Cyber-Physical Systems – Towards a Research Agenda: Report on the First International Workshop on Software Engineering for Smart CPS”
In: ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes, November, 2015


[59] Rana, Rakesh and Staron, Miroslaw and Berger, Christian and Nilsso, Agneta and Scandariato, Riccardo and Weilenmann, Alexandra and Rydmark, Martin:
“On the role of cross-disciplinary research and SSE in addressing the challenges of the digitalization of society”
In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering and Service Sciences (ICSESS), November, 2015


[58] Andrade, Hugo and Giaimo, Federico and Berger, Christian and Crnkovic, Ivica:
“Systematic Evaluation of Three Data Marshalling Approaches for Distributed Software Systems”
In: Proceedings of the 15th Workshop on Domain-Specific Modeling (DSM), October, 2015


[57] Berger, Christian and Block, Delf and Heeren, Sönke and Hons, Christian and Kühnel, Stefan and Leschke, André and Plotnikov, Dimitri and Rumpe, Bernhard:
“Simulations on Consumer Tests: A Systematic Evaluation Approach in an Industrial Case Study”
In: IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, October, 2015


[56] Berger, Christian and Block, Delf and Hons, Christian and Kühnel, Stefan and Leschke, André and Plotnikov, Dimitri and Rumpe, Bernhard:
“Large-Scale Evaluation of an Active Safety Algorithm with EuroNCAP and US NCAP Scenarios in a Virtual Test Environment – An Industrial Case Study”
In: Proceedings of the 18th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), September, 2015


[55] Giaimo, Federico and Andrade, Hugo and Berger, Christian and Crnkovic, Ivica:
“Improving Bandwidth Efficiency with Self-Adaptation for Data Marshalling on the Example of a Self-Driving Miniature Car”
In: Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Software Architectures for Next-generation Cyber-physical Systems (SANCS), September, 2015


[54] Berger, Christian:
“Accelerating Regression Testing for Scaled Self-Driving Cars with Lightweight Virtualization – A Case Study”
In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Software Engineering for Smart Cyber-Physical Systems (SEsCPS), May, 2015


[53] Berger, Christian and Eklund, Ulrik:
“Expectations and Challenges from Scaling Agile in Mechatronics-Driven Companies – A Comparative Case Study”
In: Proceedings of Agile Processes in Software Engineering and Extreme Programming (XP), May, 2015


[52] Schroeder, Jan and Berger, Christian and Herpel, Thomas:
“Challenges from Integration Testing using Interconnected Hardware-in-the-Loop Test Rigs at an Automotive OEM: An Industrial Experience Report”
In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Automotive Software Architecture (WASA), May, 2015


[51] Schroeder, Jan and Berger, Christian and Herpel, Thomas and Staron, Miroslaw:
“Comparing the Applicability of Complexity Measurements for Simulink Models during Integration Testing – An Industrial Case Study”
In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Software Architecture and Metrics (SAM), May, 2015


[50] Schroeder, Jan and Holzner, Daniela and Berger, Christian and Hoel, Carl-johan and Laine, Leo and Magnusson, Anders:
“Design and Evaluation of a Customizable Multi-Domain Reference Architecture on top of Product Lines of Self-Driving Heavy Vehicles – An Industrial Case Study”
In: Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE), May, 2015


[49] Rana, Rakesh and Staron, Miroslaw and Berger, Christian and Hansson, Jörgen and Nilsson, Martin and Törner, Fredrik and Meding, Wilhelm and Höglund, Christoffer:
“Selecting software reliability growth models and improving their predictive accuracy using historical projects data”
In: Journal of Systems and Software (JSS), November, 2014


[48] Berger, Christian:
“SenseDSL: Automating the Integration of Sensors for MCU-based Robots and Cyber-Physical Systems”
In: Proceedings of the 14th Workshop on Domain-Specific Modeling (DSM), October, 2014


[47] Berger, Christian and Block, Delf and Heeren, Sonke and Hons, Christian and Kuhnel, Stefan and Leschke, Andre and Plotnikov, Dimitri and Rumpe, Bernhard:
“Simulations on consumer tests: A systematic evaluation approach in an industrial case study”
In: Proceedings of the 17th International IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), October, 2014


[46] Mamun, Md Abdullah Al and Berger, Christian and Hansson, Jörgen:
“Explicating, Understanding and Managing Technical Debt from Self-Driving Miniature Car Projects”
In: Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Managing Technical Debt (MTD), October, 2014


[45] Zug, Sebastian and Steup, Christoph and Scholle, Julian-B. and Berger, Christian and Landsiedel, Olaf and Schuldt, Fabian and Rieken, Jens and Matthaei, Richard and Form, Thomas:
“Technical evaluation of the Carolo-Cup 2014 – A competition for self-driving miniature cars”
In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Robotic and Sensors Environments (ROSE), October, 2014


[44] Berger, Christian and Dukaczewski, Michael:
“Comparison of Architectural Design Decisions for Resource-Constrained Self-Driving Cars – A Multiple Case-Study”
In: Proceedings of the INFORMATIK 2014, September, 2014


[43] Berger, Christian and Morales, Oscar and Petig, Thomas and Schiller, Elad Michael:
“Driving with Confidence: Local Dynamic Maps That Provide LoS for the Gulliver Test-Bed”
In: SAFECOMP 2014 Workshops, September, 2014


[42] Eliasson, Ulf and Heldal, Rogardt and Lantz, Jonn and Berger, Christian:
“Agile Model-Driven Engineering in Mechatronic Systems – An Industrial Case Study”
In: Proceedings of the 17th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems (MoDELS), September, 2014


[41] Rana, Rakesh and Staron, Miroslaw and Berger, Christian and Hansson, Jörgen and Nilsson, Martin:
“Analysing defect inflow distribution of automotive software”
In: Proceedings of the10th International Conference on Predictive Models in Software Engineering (PROMISE), September, 2014


[40] Rana, Rakesh and Staron, Miroslaw and Berger, Christian and Hansson, Jörgen and Nilsson, Martin and Meding, Wilhelm:
“The Adoption of Machine Learning Techniques for Software Defect Prediction: An Initial Industrial Validation”
In: Proceedings of the 11th Joint Conference on Knowledge-Based Software Engineering, September, 2014


[39] Berger, Christian:
“Scenario Pattern Matching in Large Sensor Recordings with Simulation Models for Cyber-Physical Systems”
In: Proceedings of the 2014 Summer Computer Simulation Conference (SCS), July, 2014


[38] Berger, Christian:
“From a Competition for Self-Driving Miniature Cars to a Standardized Experimental Platform: Concept, Models, Architecture, and Evaluation”
In: Journal of Software Engineering for Robotics (JOSER), June, 2014


[37] Nilsson, Agneta and Bosch, Jan and Berger, Christian:
“Visualizing Testing Activities to Support Continuous Integration: A Multiple Case Study”
In: Agile Processes in Software Engineering and Extreme Programming (XP), May, 2014


[36] Berger, Christian:
“Saving virtual testing time for CPS by analyzing code coverage on the example of a lane-following algorithm”
In: Proceedings of the 4th ACM SIGBED International Workshop on Design, Modeling, and Evaluation of Cyber-Physical Systems (CyPhy), April, 2014


[35] Mamun, Md Abdullah Al and Berger, Christian and Hansson, Jörgen:
“Engineering the Hardware/Software Interface for Robotic Platforms – A Comparison of Applied Model Checking with Prolog and Alloy”
In: 4th International Workshop on Domain-Specific Languages and models for ROBotic systems (DSLRob), November, 2013


[34] Rana, Rakesh and Staron, Miroslaw and Berger, Christian and Hansson, Jörgen and Nilsson, Martin and Törner, Fredrik:
“Evaluating long-term predictive power of standard reliability growth models on automotive systems”
In: Proceedings of the 24th IEEE International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering (ISSRE), November, 2013


[33] Mamun, Md Abdullah Al and Berger, Christian and Hansson, Jörgen:
“MDE-based sensor management and verification for a self-driving miniature vehicle”
In: Proceedings of the 2013 ACM Workshop on Domain-Specific Modeling (DSM), October, 2013


[32] Rana, Rakesh and Staron, Miroslaw and Berger, Christian and Hansson, Jörgen and Nilsson, Martin and Törner, Fredrik:
“Comparing between Maximum Likelihood Estimator and Non-Linear Regression estimation procedures for NHPP Software Reliability Growth Modelling”
In: Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the 23rd International Workshop on Software Measurement and the 8th International Conference on Software Process and Product Measurement (IWSM/Mensura), October, 2013


[31] Berger, Christian and Katsaros, Panagiotis and Bohlouli, Mahdi and Angelis, Lefteris:
“An Interdisciplinary Perspective to the Design and Decision Support of Integral Safety Systems”
In: Proceedings of 4th IFAC Workshop on Dependable Control of Discrete Systems, September, 2013


[30] Rana, Rakesh and Staron, Miroslaw and Berger, Christian and Hansson, Jörgen and Nilsson, Martin and Törner, Fredrik:
“Improving fault injection in automotive model based development using fault bypass modeling”
In: Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Software-Based Methods for Robust Embedded Systems (SOBRES), September, 2013


[29] Berger, Christian:
“Improving scenario selection for simulations by run-time control-flow analysis”
In: Proceedings of the 2013 Summer Computer Simulation Conference (SCS), July, 2013


[28] Rana, Rakesh and Staron, Miroslaw and Berger, Christian and Hansson, Jörgen and Nilsson, Martin and Törner, Fredrik:
“Increasing Efficiency of ISO 26262 Verification and Validation by Combining Fault Injection and Mutation Testing with Model Based Development”
In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Software Engineering and Applications (ICSOFT-EA), July, 2013


[27] Rana, Rakesh and Staron, Miroslaw and Berger, Christian and Hansson, Jörgen and Nilsson, Martin and Törner, Fredrik:
“Early Verification and Validation According to ISO 26262 by Combining Fault Injection and Mutation Testing”
In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Software Technologies (ICSOFT), July, 2013


[26] Rana, Rakesh and Staron, Miroslaw and Mellegaa rd, Niklas and Berger, Christian and Hansson, Jörgen and Nilsson, Martin and Törner, Fredrik:
“Evaluation of standard reliability growth models in the context of automotive software systems”
In: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference of Product Focused Software Development and Process Improvement (PROFES), June, 2013


[25] Berger, Christian and Dahlgren, Erik and Grunden, Johan and Gunnarsson, Daniel and Holtryd, Nadia and Khazal, Anmar and Mustafa, Mohamed and Papatriantafilou, Marina and Schiller, Elad Michael and Steup, Christoph and Swantesson, Viktor and Tsigas, Philippas:
“Bridging Physical and Digital Traffic System Simulations with the Gulliver Test-bed”
In: Proceedings of 5th International Workshop on Communication Technologies for Vehicles (Net4Cars), May, 2013


[24] Berger, Christian:
“Educational Effect of a Student Competition with Self-Driving Cars on Selected Software Engineering Topics”
In: Proceedings of 5th Dagstuhl Workshop Model-Based Development of Embedded Systems (MBEES), April, 2013


[23] Berger, Christian and Chaudron, Michel and Heldal, Rogardt and Landsiedel, Olaf and Schiller, Elad M.:
“Model-based, Composable Simulation for the Development of Autonomous Miniature Vehicles”
In: Proceedings of the SCS/IEEE Symposium on Theory of Modeling and Simulation (TMS), April, 2013


[22] Berger, Christian and Block, Delf and Hons, Christian and Kühnel, Stefan and Leschke, André and Rumpe, Bernhard and Strutz, Torsten:
“Meta-Metrics for Simulations in Software Engineering on the Example of Integral Safety Systems”
In: Proceedings des 14. Braunschweiger Symposiums Automatisierungssysteme, Assistenzsysteme und eingebettete Systeme für Transportmittel (AAET), February, 2013


[21] Berger, Christian:
“Cloud-based Testing for Context-Aware Cyber-Physical Systems”
In: Software Testing in the Cloud: Perspectives on an Emerging Discipline, November, 2012


[20] Berger, Christian and Siegl, Sebastian:
“Constructive Requirements Modeling – More Reliable Implementations in a Shorter Time”
In: Proceedings of the Conference Automotive - Safety & Security, November, 2012


[19] Berger, Christian:
“Design considerations for a cyber-physical testing language on the example of autonomous driving”
In: Proceedings of the 2012 ACM Workshop on Domain-Specific Modeling (DSM), October, 2012


[18] Berger, Christian and Rumpe, Bernhard:
“Engineering Autonomous Driving Software”
In: Experience from the DARPA Urban Challenge, October, 2012


[17] Berger, Christian:
“From Autonomous Vehicles to Safer Cars: Selected Challenges for the Software Engineering”
In: Proceedings of the SAFECOMP 2012 Workshops, LNCS 7613, September, 2012


[16] Berger, Christian and Rumpe, Bernhard:
“Autonomous Driving – 5 Years after the Urban Challenge: The Anticipatory Vehicle as a Cyber-Physical System”
In: Proceedings of the INFORMATIK 2012, September, 2012


[15] Berger, Christian and Tichy, Matthias:
“Towards Transactional Self-Adaption for AUTOSAR on the Example of a Collision Detection System”
In: Proceedings of the INFORMATIK 2012, September, 2012


[14] Siegl, Sebastian and Hielscher, Kai-Steffen and German, Reinhard and Berger, Christian:
“Automated Testing of Embedded Automotive Systems from Requirement Specification Models”
In: Proceedings of the 12th IEEE Latin-American Test Workshop (LATS), March, 2011


[13] Siegl, Sebastian and Hielscher, Kai-Steffen and German, Reinhard and Berger, Christian:
“Formal specification and systematic model-driven testing of embedded automotive systems”
In: Proceedings of the Design, Automation & Test in Europe Conference (DATE), March, 2011


[12] Berger, Christian and Rendel, Holger and Rumpe, Bernhard and Busse, Carsten and Jablonski, Thorsten and Wolf, Fabian:
“Product Line Metrics for Legacy Software in Practice”
In: Proceedings of the 14th International Software Product Line Conference (SPLC), September, 2010


[11] Berger, Christian:
“Automating Acceptance Tests for Sensor- and Actuator-based Systems on the Example of Autonomous Vehicles”
In: Engineering, August, 2010


[10] Berger, Christian and Rumpe, Bernhard:
“Supporting Agile Change Management by Scenario-Based Regression Simulation”
In: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, June, 2010


[9] Mengi, Cem and Babur, Önder and Rendel, Holger and Berger, Christian:
“Model-driven Configuration of Function Net Families in Automotive Software Engineering”
In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Model-driven Product Line Engineering (MDPLE), June, 2010


[8] Biermeyer, Jan and Gonzales, Humberto and Naikal, Nikhil and Templeton, Todd and Sastry, Shankar and Berger, Christian and Rumpe, Bernhard:
“Rapid Integration and Automatic Calibration for new Sensors using the Berkeley Aachen Robotics Toolkit BART”
In: Proceedings des 11. Braunschweiger Symposiums Automatisierungssysteme, Assistenzsysteme und eingebettete Systeme für Transportmittel (AAET), February, 2010


[7] Berger, Christian and Rendel, Holger and Rumpe, Bernhard:
“Measuring the Ability to Form a Product Line from Existing Products”
In: Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Variability Modelling of Software-intense Systems (VaMoS), January, 2010


[6] Rauskolb, Fred W. and Berger, Kai and Lipski, Christian and Magnor, Marcus and Cornelsen, Karsten and Effertz, Jan and Form, Thomas and Graefe, Fabian and Ohl, Sebastian and Schumacher, Walter and Wille, Jörn-Marten and Hecker, Peter and Nothdurft, Tobias and Doering, Michael and Homeier, Kai and Morgenroth, Johannes and Wolf, Lars and Basarke, Christian and Berger, Christian and Gülke, Tim and Klose, Felix and Rumpe, Bernhard:
“Caroline: An Autonomously Driving Vehicle for Urban Environments”
In: The DARPA Urban Challenge, November, 2009


[5] Berger, Christian and Gülke, Tim and Rumpe, Bernhard:
“ProcDSL + ProcEd – a Web-based Editing Solution for Domain Specific Process-Engineering”
In: Proceedings of 9th OOPSLA Workshop on Domain-Specific Modeling (DSM), October, 2009


[4] Berger, Christian and Völkel, Steven and Rumpe, Bernhard:
“Extensible Validation Framework for DSLs using MontiCore on the Example of Coding Guidelines”
In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Automotive / Avionics Systems Engineering, October, 2009


[3] Rauskolb, Fred W. and Berger, Kai and Lipski, Christian and Magnor, Marcus and Cornelsen, Karsten and Effertz, Jan and Form, Thomas and Graefe, Fabian and Ohl, Sebastian and Schumacher, Walter and Wille, Jörn-Marten and Hecker, Peter and Nothdurft, Tobias and Doering, Michael and Homeier, Kai and Morgenroth, Johannes and Wolf, Lars and Basarke, Christian and Berger, Christian and Gülke, Tim and Klose, Felix and Rumpe, Bernhard:
“Caroline: An Autonomously Driving Vehicle for Urban Environments”
In: Journal of Field Robotics (JoFR), September, 2008


[2] Berger, Christian and Rumpe, Bernhard:
“Autonomes Fahren - Erkenntnisse aus der DARPA Urban Challenge (Autonomous Driving - Insights from the DARPA Urban Challenge)”
In: it - Information Technology, July, 2008


[1] Basarke, Christian and Berger, Christian and Rumpe, Bernhard:
“Software & Systems Engineering Process and Tools for the Development of Autonomous Driving Intelligence”
In: Journal of Aerospace Computing, Information, and Communication (JACIC), December, 2007